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To see a list of publications by Dr. Franz, please visit his google scholar page.

2021

Franz JR. Focus Article: A sound approach to improving exoskeletons and exosuits. Science Robotics (In press).

Clark WH and Franz JR. Age-Related Changes to Triceps Surae Muscle-Subtendon Interaction Dynamics During Walking. Scientific Reports (In press).

Kim H and Franz JR. Age-related differences in calf muscle recruitment strategies in the time-frequency domain during walking as a function of task demand. Journal of Applied Physiology 131(4):1348-60.

Zhang Q, Clark WH, Franz JR. Sharma N. Personalized fusion of ultrasound and electromyography-derived neuromuscular features increases prediction accuracy of ankle moment during plantarflexion. Biomedical Signal Processing & Control (In press).

Lehr NL, Clark WH, Lewek MD, Franz JR. The Effects of Triceps Surae Muscle Stimulation on Localized Achilles Subtendon Tissue Displacements. Journal of Experimental Biology 225(15):242135.

Waanders JB, Murgia A, DeVita P, Franz JR, Hortobágyi T. Age does not affect the relationship between muscle activation and joint work during incline and decline walking. Journal of Biomechanics 124:110555.

Armitano-Lago CN, Pietrosimone B, Evans-Pickett A, Davis-Wilson H, Franz JR, Blackburn JT, Kiefer AW. Cueing changes in peak vertical ground reaction force to improve coordination dynamics in walking. Journal of Motor Behavior (In press).

Krupenevich RL, Ray SF, Kashefsky HE, Takahashi KZ, Franz JR. Effects of age and locomotor demand on foot mechanics during walking. Journal of Biomechanics (In press).

Krupenevich RL, Beck ON, Sawicki GS, Franz JR. Reduced Achilles tendon stiffness disrupts calf muscle neuromechanics in elderly gait. Gerontology (In press).

Krupenevich RL, Funk CJ, Franz JR. Automated Analysis of Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle-Tendon Junction Displacements During Isolated Contractions and Walking Using Deep Neural Networks. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine 206: 106120.

Pieper NL, Baudendistel ST, Hass CJ, Diaz GB, Krupenevich RL, and Franz JR. The metabolic and mechanical consequences of altered propulsive force generation in walking. Journal of Biomechanics 122: 110447.

Pimentel RE, Pieper NL, Clark WH, Franz JR. Muscle metabolic energy costs while modifying propulsive force generation during walking. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering (In press).

Conway KA, Crudup KL, Lewek MD, Franz JR. The effects of a 6-week horizontal impeding force gait training protocol on push-off intensity in older adults. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 53(3):574-580.

Herrero L, Franz JR, Lewek MD. Gradually learning to increase gait propulsion in young unimpaired adults. Human Movement Science 75:102745.

Clark WH, Pimentel RE, Franz JR. Imaging and simulation of inter-muscular differences in triceps surae contributions to forward propulsion during walking. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 49(2): 703-715.

2020

Armitano-Lago CN, Pietrosimone B, Davis-Wilson H, Evans-Pickett A, Franz JR, Blackburn JT, Kiefer AW. Biofeedback augmenting lower limb loading alters the underlying temporal structure of gait following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Human Movement Science (In press).

Awad LN, Lewek M, Kesar J, Franz JR, Bowden M. These legs were made for propulsion: Advancing the diagnosis and treatment of post-stroke propulsion deficits. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation (In press).

Beck ON, Gosyne JR, Franz JR, Sawicki GS. Cyclically producing the same average muscle-tendon force with a smaller duty increases metabolic rate. Proceedings of the Royal Society Part B (In press).

Munsch AE, Pietrosimone B, Franz JR. The effects of knee extensor moment biofeedback on gait biomechanics and quadriceps contractile behavior. PeerJ 8:e9509.

Evans-Pickett A, Davis-Wilson HC, Luc-Harkey BA, Blackburn TJ, Franz JR, Padua DA, Seeley MK, Pietrosimone B. Biomechanical Effects of Manipulating Peak Vertical Ground Reaction Force During Gait in Individuals with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Clinical Biomechanics 76:105014.

Krupenevich RL, Clark WH, Sawicki GS, Franz JR. Older adults overcome reduced triceps surae structural stiffness to preserve ankle joint quasi-stiffness during walking. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 5:1-8.

Selgrade BP, Meyer D, Sosnoff JJ, Franz JR. Can optical flow perturbations detect walking balance impairment in people with multiple sclerosis? PloS One 15(3): e0230202.

Selgrade BP, Childs ME, Franz JR. Effects of age and target location on reaction time and accuracy of lateral precision stepping during walking. Journal of Biomechanics 104:109710.

Luc-Harkey BA, Franz JR,Hackney AC, Blackburn JT, Padua DA, Schwartz TA, Pietrosimone B. Effects of Gait Biofeedback on Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein in Individuals with ACL Reconstruction. Journal of Athletic Training (In press)

Conway KA and Franz JR, Shorter gastrocnemius fascicle lengths in older adults associate with worse capacity to enhance push-off intensity in walking. Gait & Posture 77: 89-94.

Pieper NL, Lewek MD, Franz JR. Can shank acceleration provide a clinically feasible surrogate for individual limb propulsion during walking? Journal of Biomechanics 98:109449.

Waanders JB, Murgia A, Hortobágyi H, DeVita P, Franz JR. How age and surface inclination affect joint moment strategies to accelerate and decelerate individual leg joints during walking. Journal of Biomechanics 98(2):109440.

Qiao M, Richards JT, Franz KR. Visuomotor error augmentation affects mediolateral head and trunk stabilization during walking. Human Movement Science 68:102525.

Clark WH and Franz JR, Triceps surae muscle-subtendon interaction differs between young and older adults. Connective Tissue Research 61(1):104-113. *Invited, Special Issue on Aging.

2019

Richards JT, Selgrade BP, Qiao M, Plummer P, Wikstrom EA, Franz JR. Time-dependent tuning of balance control and aftereffects following optical flow perturbation training in older adults. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation 16:81.

Conway KA and Franz JR. Increasing the propulsive demands of walking to their maximum elucidates functionally limiting impairments in older adult gait. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 29:1-28.

Browne MG and Franz JR. Ankle power biofeedback attenuates the distal-to-proximal redistribution in older adults. Gait & Posture 71:44-49.

Clark WH and Franz JR. Activation-dependent changes in soleus length-tension behavior augment ankle joint quasi-stiffness. Journal of Applied Biomechanics 35(3):182-189.

Waanders JB, Hortobágyi T, Murgia A, DeVita P, Franz JR. Advanced age redistributes positive but not negative leg joint work during walking. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 51(4): 615-23.

Stenroth L, Thelen DG, Franz JR. Biplanar ultrasound investigation of in vivo Achilles tendon displacement non-uniformity. Translational Sports Medicine 2(2):73-81.

Acuña SA, Francis CA, Franz JR, Thelen DG. The effects of cognitive load and visual feedback on antagonist leg muscle coactivation during walking for young and older adults. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 44:8-12.

Franz JR, Khanchandani A, McKenney H, Clark WH. Ankle rotation and muscle loading effects on the calcaneal tendon moment arm: an in vivo imaging and modeling study. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 47(2):590-600.

2018

Luc-Harkey BA, Franz JR, Hackney AC, Blackburn JT, Padua DA, Pietrosimone B. Lesser Lower Extremity Mechanical Loading Associates with a Greater Change in Serum Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein following Walking in Individuals with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Clinical Biomechanics 60:13-19.

Fickey SN, Browne MG, Franz JR. Biomechanical effects of augmented ankle power output during human walking. Journal of Experimental Biology 221.

Thompson JD, Plummer P, Franz JR. Age and falls history effects on antagonist leg muscle coactivation during walking with balance perturbations. Clinical Biomechanics 59:94-100.

Allen JL and Franz JR. The motor repertoire of older adult fallers may constrain their response to balance perturbations. Journal of Neurophysiology 120(5):2368-2378.

Browne MG and Franz JR (2018). More push from your push-off: joint-level modifications to modulate propulsive forces in old age. Plos One; 13(8):e0201407.

Clark WH and Franz JR (2018). Do triceps surae muscle dynamics govern non-uniform Achilles tendon tissue displacements? PeerJ;6:e5182 .

Rasske K and Franz JR (2018). Aging effects on the Achilles tendon moment arm during walking. Journal of Biomechanics; 77:34-39.

Luc-Harkey BA, Franz JR, Losina E, Pietrosimone B (2018). Association between Kinesiophobia and Walking Gait Characteristics in Individuals with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.  Gait & Posture; 64: 220-25.

Conway KA, Bissette RG, Franz JR. The functional utilization of propulsive capacity during human walking. Journal of Applied Biomechanics (In press).

Luc-Harkey BA, Franz JR, Blackburn JT, Padua DA, Hackney AC, Pietrosimone B  (2018). Real-time Biofeedback Can Increase and Decrease Vertical Ground Reaction Force, Knee Flexion Excursion, and Knee Extension Moment during Walking in Individuals with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Journal of Biomechanics; 76:94-102.

Qiao M, Truong K, Franz JR (2018). Does local dynamic stability during unperturbed walking predict the response to balance perturbations? An examination across age and falls history. Gait & Posture; 62: 80-85.

Qiao M, Feld JA, and Franz JR (2018). Aging effects on leg joint variability during walking with balance perturbations. Gait & Posture; 62: 27-33.

2017

Browne MG and Franz JR (2017). Does dynamic stability govern propulsive force generation in human walking? Royal Society Open Science; 4: 171673.

Orselli MIV, Franz JR, Thelen DG (2017). The effects of Achilles tendon compliance on triceps surae mechanics and energetics in walking. Journal of Biomechanics; 60: 227-31.

Zelik KE and Franz JR (2017). It’s positive to be negative: Achilles tendon work loops during human locomotion. PLoS One; 12(7).

Wittenberg E, Thomspon JD, Nam CS, Franz JR (2017). Neuroimaging of human balance control: A systematic review. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience; 11:170.

Stokes HE, Thompson JD, Franz JR (2017). The neuromuscular origins of kinematic variability during perturbed walking. Nature: Scientific Reports; 7(1): 808.

Thompson JD and Franz JR (2017). Do kinematic metrics of walking balance control adapt to perturbed optical flow? Human Movement Science; 54: 34-40.

Browne MG and Franz JR (2017). The independent effects of speed and propulsive force on joint power generation in walking. Journal of Biomechanics; 55:48-55.

Rasske K, Thelen DG, Franz JR (2017). Variation in the human Achilles tendon moment arm during walking. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering; 20(2): 201-5.

Franz JR, Francis CA, Allen MS, Thelen DG (2017). Visuomotor entrainment and the frequency-dependent response of walking balance to perturbations. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems & Rehabilitation Engineering; 25(8):1135-42.

2016

Franz JR (2016). The age-associated reduction in propulsive power generation in walking. Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews; 44(4): 129-36.

Franz JR and Thelen DG (2016). Imaging and simulation of Achilles tendon dynamics: implications for walking performance in the elderly. Journal of Biomechanics; 29: 1403-10.

2015

Francis CA, Franz JR, O’Connor SM, Thelen DG (2015). Gait variability in healthy old adults is more affected by a visual perturbation than by a cognitive or narrow step placement demand. Gait & Posture;  42(3): 380-5.

Franz JR and Thelen DG (2015). Depth-dependent variations in Achilles tendon deformations with age are associated with reduced plantarflexor performance during walking. Journal of Applied Physiology; 119(3): 242-9.

Franz JR, Francis, CA, Allen MS, O’Connor SM, Thelen DG (2015). Advanced age brings a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during walking. Human Movement Science; 40: 381-92.

Franz JR, Slane LC, Rasske K, Thelen DG (2015). Non-uniform in vivo deformations of the human Achilles tendon during walking. Gait & Posture; 41(1): 192-7.

2014

Franz JR, Maletis M, Kram R (2014). Real-time feedback enhances forward propulsion during walking in old adults. Clinical Biomechanics; 29(1): 68-74.

Tung KD, Franz JR, Kram R (2014). A test of the metabolic cost of cushioning hypothesis in shod and unshod running. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise; 46:324-9.

Franz JR and Kram R (2014). Advanced age and the mechanics of uphill walking: a joint-level, inverse dynamic analysis. Gait & Posture; 39(1):135-40.

2013

Franz JR, Kram R (2013). How does age affect leg muscle activity/coactivity during uphill and downhill walking? Gait & Posture; 37(3):378-84.

Franz JR, Kram R (2013). Advanced age affects the individual leg mechanics of level, uphill, and downhill walking. Journal of Biomechanics; 46(3):535-40.

2012

Stephen D, D’Andrea SE, Niemi JB, Franz JR, Kerrigan DC (2012). Baseline-Dependent Effect of Noise-Enhanced Insoles on Gait Variability in Healthy Elderly Walkers. Gait & Posture; 36(3):537-40.

Kram R, Franz JR (2012). Is barefoot running more economical? International Journal of Sports Medicine; 33(3):249.

Franz JR, Wierzbinski C, Kram R (2012). The metabolic cost of running barefoot vs. shod: Is lighter better? Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise; 44(8):1519-25.

Franz JR, Kram R (2012). The effects of grade and speed on leg muscle activations during walking. Gait & Posture; 35(1):143-7.

Franz JR, Lyddon NE, Kram R (2012). Mechanical work performed by the individual legs during uphill and downhill walking. Journal of Biomechanics; 45(2):257-62.

2011

Kram R, Arellano CA, Franz JR (2011). The metabolic cost of locomotion; muscle by muscle. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews; 39(2):57-8.

Watt RW, Jackson K, Franz JR, Dicharry J, Kerrigan DC (2011). Effect of a supervised hip flexor-stretching program on gait in frail elderly. PM&R Journal; 3(4):330-5.

Watt RW, Jackson K, Franz JR, Dicharry J, Kerrigan DC (2011). Effect of a supervised hip flexor-stretching program on gait in elderly individuals. PM&R Journal; 3(4):324-9.

Keenan G, Franz JR, Dicharry J, Della Croce U, Kerrigan DC (2011). Lower limb joint kinetics in walking: the role of industry recommended footwear. Gait & Posture; 33(3):350 5.

2010

Watt JR, Franz JR, Jackson K, Dicharry J, Riley PO, Kerrigan DC (2010). A three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic comparison of overground and treadmill walking in elderly subjects. Clinical Biomechanics; 25(5):444-9.

Telhan G, Franz JR, Dicharry J, Wilder RP, Riley PO, Kerrigan DC (2010). Moderate grade slope has no effect on three-dimensional lower limb moments during running. Journal of Athletic Training; 45(1):16-21.

Riley PO, Franz JR, Dicharry J, Kerrigan DC (2010). Changes in hip joint muscle-tendon lengths with mode of locomotion. Gait & Posture; 31(2):279-83.

2009

Kerrigan DC, Franz JR, Keenan GS, Dicharry J, Della Croce U, Wilder RP (2009). The effect of running shoes on lower extremity net joint torques. PM&R Journal; 1(12):1058-63.

Dicharry J, Franz JR, Wilder RP, Riley PO, Kerrigan DC (2009). Differences in static and dynamic measures in evaluation of talonavicular mobility in gait. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy; 39(8):628-34.

Franz JR, Paylo KW, Dicharry J, Riley PO, Kerrigan DC (2009). Changes in the coordination of hip and pelvis kinematics with mode of locomotion. Gait & Posture; 29(3):494-8.

Riley PO, Bennet BC, Franz JR, Dicharry J, Allair PE, Miller S, Kerrigan DC (2009). Controlled partial body weight support for treadmill training – a case study. PM&R Journal; 1(5):496-99.

2008

Riley PO, Dicharry J, Franz JR, Wilder RP, Kerrigan DC (2008). A kinematic and kinetic comparison of overground and treadmill running. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise; 40(6):1093-100.

Franz JR, Riley PO, Dicharry J, Allaire PE, Kerrigan DC (2008). Gait synchronized force modulation during the stance period of one limb achieved by an active partial body weight support system. Journal of Biomechanics; 41(15):3116-20.

Franz JR, Dicharry J, Riley PO, Jackson K, Wilder RP, Kerrigan DC (2008). The influence of arch support cushions on knee torques relevant to knee osteoarthritis. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise; 40(5):913-7.

2007

Franz JR, Glauser M, Riley PO, Della Croce U, Newton F, Allaire PE, Kerrigan DC (2007). Physiological modulation of gait variables by an active partial body weight support system. Journal of Biomechanics; 40(14): 3244-50.